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哈麗雅特·塔布曼

原文作者:蕭蕭

  哈麗雅特·塔布曼,美國著名的廢奴主義者,美國南北戰爭時期黑奴逃跑組織“地下鐵道”的領導人之一,為了黑人奴隸的解放奮斗終生,被評為美國內戰前最偉大的三位平民之一。她不識字,但懂得思考;她鐵骨錚錚,亦不乏幽默;她勇敢無畏,信念堅定;她是世界上最勇敢、最善良的人,也是美國人心中的巾幗英雄。在她逝世后的一百年里,美國數十所學院以她的名字命名;美國海軍戰艦第一次使用一位黑人平民婦女的名字命名;在美國郵政局發行的紀念美國黑人的系列郵票中,紀念她的郵票總數排在首位;在美國評選的最偉大的一百名非裔美國人中,她位列其中。今年是塔布曼逝世一百周年,讓我們共同走進這位奇女子的傳奇人生。
   there was one of two things i had a right to, liberty, or death; if i could not have one, i would have the other; for no man should take me alive.
   —harriet tubman [論文網]
  harriet was born as a slave around 1820. like all slave children, she could not run and play; she worked all the time. harriet was a hard worker, but when she did not obey her owner she was whipped cruelly. when she saw her owner sell two of her sisters, harriet was terrified that she would also be sold and have to leave her family.
   哈麗雅特·塔布曼大約出生于1820年,生來便是奴隸。www.vjlrk.live與其他童奴一樣,哈麗雅特不能亂跑和玩耍,只能不停地干活。雖然她干活很賣力,但只要一不聽從主人,就會遭到殘酷的鞭打。當她親眼看著自己的兩個姐妹被主人賣掉時,她嚇壞了,害怕自己也會被賣掉而不得不離開家人。
   dreams of escape
  when she was a young girl, harriet tried to help an escaping slave. the slave's master threw a metal weight at her, and it struck her in the head. harriet almost died from the wound on her forehead. for the rest of her life, she had headaches and sleeping spells2) because of her injury.
   harriet's life was harsh3), but she had dreams. she dreamed of escaping to the north and living as a free woman. when harriet started planning her own escape, she wanted her husband, a free slave, to join her. he refused, mocking her for wanting to leave, and threatened to report her to her master. but harriet was determined to become a free woman.
   one day, harriet's owner died. harriet knew the slaves would be sold; it was time to go. harriet and two of her brothers ran away, but soon after they left, the brothers gave up, forcing harriet to return with them.
   two nights later, harriet escaped alone. to escape, harriet walked 100 miles, alone, through unknown land. she traveled at night and hid during the day. finally, she arrived at the border of pennsylvania, a state where slavery was illegal. harriet was free!
   leading others to freedom
  when harriet reached freedom, she was overjoyed. "there was such a glory over everything," she said when she remembered that day. "the sun come like gold through the trees."
   harriet went to work. she cooked, washed dishes, and cleaned people's houses. now that she was free, people actually paid her to work for them. but harriet was not content to sit back and enjoy her freedom—she saved the money she earned so that she could help free others.

  harriet made nineteen perilous4) trips back to the south, ignoring her own danger in order to become a conductor5) of the underground railroad6). she guided escaping slaves from one safe resting place to another.
   how she did it
  many c

alled harriet a "master of disguise". sometimes she dressed as an old woman, and sometimes she disguised herself as a man. it is said that one day she met one of her former owners, and he didn't recognize her!
   harriet was clever in other ways. she hired men to rip down wanted posters that described runaway slaves. runaway notices, which were printed in the newspaper, weren't put in newspapers on weekends—they had to wait until monday morning. harriet began escapes on saturday nights in order to have a head start7).
   if harriet saw people she thought were slave hunters, she'd turn and go south, to make it look as though she was not trying to escape. if the escaping slaves wanted to turn back, she forced them to keep moving north to freedom. she boasted that she never lost a passenger.
   slave owners were furious, and they offered a reward for harriet's capture, dead or alive. the reward was $40,000—an enormous amount of money for those days. one day, harriet overheard a man reading her own wanted poster, which described harriet as not being able to read. she immediately pulled out a book and pretended to read it, and the man left without giving her a second look.
   harriet helped many of her own relatives out of the south. thanks to harriet, six of her ten brothers and sisters escaped. on one difficult journey, she brought her elderly parents north to canada.
   harriet led about three hundred slaves north to freedom. nothing was more important to her than helping others become free. one famous abolitionist, john brown, called harriet tubman "one of the bravest persons on this continent". people called harriet the "moses of her people", because like moses of the bible, she led her people to freedom.
   the end of slavery
  on april 12, 1861, the civil war began. during the war, harriet worked as a nurse for the north's union army. she was also a spy, scouting8) out the southern army's weapon warehouses9), and she continued to travel into the south to lead slaves north.
   after the civil war, harriet remarried and lived in auburn, new york. she sold vegetables door-to-door. harriet was very poor, yet she turned her own house into a home for needy freed people. she worked for aid and education for freed slaves. harriet also fought for the right of women to vote.

  harriet tubman died march 10, 1913. she devoted her long life to freedom. she will always be remembered as a true hero.
   逃亡之夢
  在哈麗雅特還是小女孩的時候,她曾經試圖幫助一個出逃的奴隸。那個奴隸的主人朝她扔了一個金屬秤砣,正好砸到她的頭上。她的額頭被砸傷了,她差點兒因此喪命。她在此后的一生中都因這次受傷而被頭痛和睡眠不好所困擾。
   雖然生活很艱苦,但哈麗雅特心懷夢想。她夢想著逃到沒有奴隸制的北方,像一個自由女性那樣活著。在哈麗雅特開始計劃自己的逃亡之旅時,她想讓丈夫(一個獲得自由的奴隸)和她一同逃跑。她的丈夫非但不肯,還嘲笑她竟然想要逃跑,并揚言要向她的主人告發她。然而,哈麗雅特鐵了心要成為一個自由的女性。
   一天,哈麗雅特的主人死了,她知道奴隸們都會被賣掉,是時候該逃跑了。她和自己的兩個兄弟一同逃跑,但出逃沒多久,她的兩個兄弟就放棄了逃亡,還強迫她跟著他們回去。
   但在兩天后,哈麗雅特趁著夜色獨自一人踏上了出逃之路。為了逃跑,她徒步走了100英里,獨自一人穿行在陌生的土地上。她白天東躲西藏,晚上加緊趕路,最后終于抵達賓夕法尼亞州的邊界。在這里奴隸制是非法的,哈麗雅特自由了!
   自由的引領者


  獲得自由的哈麗雅特感到狂喜不已。她在回憶起那天的情形時說:“一切都帶著光環,穿過樹林照射而來的陽光就像金子一般閃閃發光。”
  哈麗雅特開始去工作,她給別人做飯、洗碗、打掃屋子。因為她已是自由人,人們真的會付錢給她,讓她來給自己干活。但哈麗雅特卻不滿足于這種悠閑自在、享受自由的生活,她把自己掙來的錢都攢了下來,好幫助其他的奴隸獲得自由。
   為了成為一名“地下鐵道”組織的“乘務員”,她不顧自身危險,先后19次歷經艱難險阻重返南方,帶領逃亡的奴隸們輾轉于一個又一個的安全落腳點。
  逃跑的秘訣
  許多人稱哈麗雅特為“偽裝高手”。她有時穿成是年邁的婦女,有時將自己扮作男人。據說有一天她遇到了以前的某位主人,那人竟然沒認出她來。
  哈麗雅特的聰明還表現在其他方面。她雇人去撕下那些描述逃奴特點的通緝告示。當時的逃跑公告都印在報紙上,但在周末的報紙上不會刊登,必須要等到周一早上才能見報。于是哈麗雅特就在周六晚上組織奴隸逃跑,以搶占先機。
   要是哈麗雅特覺得自己遇到的人像是前來追捕逃奴的人,她便掉頭往南走,好讓人看起來她并不是想逃跑一樣。要是逃亡的奴隸想要反悔,她便會強迫他們繼續朝著北方前進,朝著自由前行。她自豪地宣稱她從未讓一個“乘客”掉過隊。
   奴隸主們十分憤怒,他們懸賞捉拿哈麗雅特,不管活捉還是干掉都行。賞金達四萬美元,這在當時可是很大的一筆錢。有一天,哈麗雅特無意中聽到一個男子在讀通緝她的告示,告示上說哈麗雅特不識字。她就立刻掏出一本書來假裝在讀,而那個男子都沒有再看她一眼就走了。
   哈麗雅特幫助自己的很多親戚逃出了南方,她十個兄弟姐妹中有六個都是虧得有她幫助才得以逃走的。在一次艱險的出逃中,她還帶著自己年邁的雙親一路北上直至加拿大。
  在哈麗雅特的帶領下,三百多名奴隸逃往北方,重獲自由。對她而言,沒有什么事情比幫助他人獲得自由更重要。著名的廢奴主義者約翰·布朗稱哈麗雅特·塔布曼為“這片土地上最勇敢的人之一”。人們稱她為“同胞們的摩西”,因為她就像《圣經》中帶領猶太人逃出埃及的摩西一樣,帶領她的同胞們走向自由。
   奴隸制的終結
  1861年4月12日,美國內戰爆發。哈麗雅特在戰爭中是北方聯邦軍的一名護士,同時也是一名偵查員,負責偵察南方軍隊的軍火庫所在地。在此期間,她還繼續往返于南北方之間,帶領奴隸們逃往北方。
   內戰結束后,哈麗雅特重新組建了家庭,定居紐約州奧本市,靠挨家挨戶賣菜為生。雖然她自己很窮,但她還是將自己的房子變成一個收容所,收容那些已經獲得自由而又十分貧窮的人。她為那些得以解放的奴隸爭取物質上的幫助和受教育的權利,也為爭取女性的投票權進行了努力。
   哈麗雅特·塔布曼于1913年3月10日離開了人世。她畢生都在為自由而戰。人們會永遠銘記這位真正的英雄——哈麗雅特·塔布曼。
  4. perilous [?per?l?s] adj. (充滿)危險的
  5. conductor [k?n?d?kt?(r)] n. 乘務員。此處指“地下鐵道”組織中幫助奴隸逃跑的人員,是該組織的暗語之一。
  6. underground railroad: “地下鐵道”,給逃往美國北方尋求自由的奴隸們提供一些安身之地或藏身之所的組織。
  7. head start: 占先;有利的開端
  8. scout [ska?t] vi. 偵察
  9. warehouse [?we?ha?s] n. 倉庫
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